Derek's Sonoluminescence Page

Discussion Page

This page serves as a site where people can come together and pose their questions about sonoluminescence and hopefully get some answers!

Click here to add your entry to the discussion. Don't be bashful!!!

See the archives of previous questions and commments...

Archives 1

Archives 2

Archives 3

Back to the SL NET

Derek Stewart (
EST: Wednesday, Aug 26, 1998 (20:26)
From: Virginia

Hey SL'ers,

I have switched the SL page over to a frames version. I hope
you enjoy it. I am still in the processs of fixing some of the bugs
and dead links, so please have patience. I have started a new
discussion page which will be archived at the end of October. Don't
forget to look in the Archives for helpful hints and similar questions.

Have fun,


Karl (
EST: Monday, Aug 31, 1998 (09:47)
From: Sydney, Aust

Hi people, My name is karl, I was just browsing the web and happened across this pag e, fascinating reading.
Although I'm not an accoustic engineer, I am an Audio Eng and while I was browsing through the chat archives,
I noticed a question someone had brought up relating to power (watts) required to achieve resonance.
Simply speaking if you know the frequency you are trying to achieve resonance at, then you should be able to achieve resonance
irrespective of power used(perfect world theory), If however, you are trying to achieve resonance at a point within another medium
then really you should only need enough power to penetrate through to the point of resonance. My advice woould be simply to start
at a set low power level and slowly ramp up the power untill resonance is achieved. Simple in theory but maybe not in practice,
I know its an old question and has probably been answered already, just thought I'd put in my dollars worth.
Just out oof curiosity, has anyone tried resonating the bubble AND the medium it's in?

Griffin (
EST: Wednesday, Sept 9, 1998 (21:39)
From: Coyers, Geog ia

I am doing a science project on SL and need some more info

Georges Gabereau (
EST: Friday, Sept 11, 1998 (20:21)
From: Knowlton, Quebec, Canad a.


I'm looking into sonoluminescence for my high school physics/chem
project. I read all the pages I could find and I still don't really
understand how to set it up. Do any of you have the SciAm article
on making a SL kit? if not could someone give me a very detailed
step-by-step instructions on how to make a set-up. Any help would
be greatly appreciated.


Georges Gabereau

Erik (
EST: Tuesday, Sept 15, 1998 (14:33)
From: NYC

In response to Karl's question about resonating the medium; in effect, that is wh at is happening when SL in being produced. "Finding the resonant frequency" referes to the frequency at which the given flask filled with water will resonate. Changing the medium which the bubble would float in would (based on density and viscosity of t he different liquid) change the resonant frequency of the system.

Shao Jun Ping (
EST: Wednesday, Oct 7, 1998 (06:46)
From: Singapore
lin k:

What's so special about the Channel Industries transducers?
I see a many ordering from them, when this might not
be the most convenient thing to do. Can I use just about
any piezo with similar ratings? (Am attempting to get SL)

If the Channel piezos are really so special, does anybody
know what their e-mail address is. Please tell me. Thank you.

Secondly, is there anyone out there who is building a sig-gen
on their own as a substitute for the low-res general lab-type
sig-gen? Specifically, is there anybody using a XR chip or
something of the sort and has acheived success? I would like
to hear from you.

Third, what kind of cylindrical vessels should be used for SL
(dimensions, design), if cylindrical vessels are used? Should
the ends and cover be made of glass or metal? Is there any
advantage in using cylindrical vessels over spherical vessels?

Finally, is there anybody who has obtained interesting results
or performed experiments other than just replicating the SciAm
result, without using expensive equipment?

Thank you for your time, and would like to hear a reply soon.

Derek Stewart (
EST: Thursday, Oct 29, 1998 (18:07)

Hi all you SL'ers,

There have been some problems with the Discussion Perl scripts
because of the move, but I think they should be working properly
now. Let me know if you have any problems.


Richard A. DeVerse (
EST: Thursday, Oct 29, 1998 (22:35)
From: Kansas State University

I am a gradua te student in the Chemistry department here at KSU. I am working on instrument development for my thesis. I have been building spectrometers and hyperspectral imaging spectrometers using micromirror arrays. I am currently working on my proposition oral ex am. This is a paper and presentation where the graduate student presents a novel experiment or investigation to his or her peers, committee members and advisors. I have chosen the fascinating phenomena of sonoluminescence to investigate. I am asking that anyone with ideas on some interesting experiments that can or should be performed in the investigation of sonoluminescence please give me an email or call. My phone is (785) 532-1459. I look forward to discussion.

James Powell (
EST: Thursday, Nov 5, 1998 (17:31)
From: Delta State University Cleveland, MS

My son has asked me to help him build a sonoluminesence model. What pizo tranducers will work with a 50mm flask or 250mm flask and what audio power is needed to produce sonoluminescence?
What method is used to measure resonance?



Milan (
EST: Wednesday, Nov 11, 1998 (20:51)
From: Ontario, Canada

I'm a high school student, and just rescently learned of SL. I'm
obviously not a knowledgeable Physisist but I was wondering if anyone
can explain SL to me in terms of E = mc2 (if that's at
all possible). I can see how the energy, in the form of heat,
is produced, but what is the matter which is being transformed?
Also, why can't this energy be used as a power source?

Matthew Bruge
EST: Friday, Nov 13, 1998 (21:51)


Adam Krist (
EST: Sunday, Nov 15, 1998 (19:59)
From: San Diego

Has anyone heard of, or tried, to put the liquid under
higer pressure? Could this bring about a more stable bubble,
or perhaps a stronger reaction?
Curious neophyte.

John Holcomb (
EST: Monday, Nov 16, 1998 (23:40)
From: Illinois

I read a question above that echoes my question:). It's mor e of a
hypothosis though: I've read that it is thought that the bubble
expands and then contracts, creating astounding heat that possibly
results in plasma. For some reason that doesn't seem right to me;
too simple. Perhaps I'm just a simpleton, but when fusion occurs there
are bi-products; really, when any sort of light is emitted a reaction
occurs, our sun for example, in which matter is converted into energy.

Couldn't it be: When the energy of the sound waves encounter the bubble
that becuase of the different density of the air and water(sound moving
1/4 the speed in air as opposed to water)that the air molecules are
excited a sort of friction causing the expansion. Now that's no biggy,
however, the atoms themselves are expanding, and then the electrons
reach their orbital limits. This results in a contraction of the
electrons twice the speed of light, which are then converted to energy.
Now perhaps the reason why there MUST be a noble gas present is that
their atomic structure is such that their contraction is not enought to
result in a conversion. Now I'm probably way off here, but would the
conversion result in less of the atoms that were converted? Would this
not result in a slight vacume? That being said, with the heat from
the matter to energy conversion would perhaps come a boiling at the
edge of the bubble equalizing the bubble with just a few molecules
of water(H2O).
Needless to say, I'm not a physicist, but I thought I'd give
it a shot;) I'll look for comments and critisism, and I welcome such!
Please, tell me where I'm wrong, so that I can change and understand:)

KM (
EST: Wednesday, Nov 18, 1998 (18:11)
From: Vancouver

I am trying to build a small version of a sonoluminescence device and would apprec iate any info relating to sonoluminescence feel free to
e-mail me

KM (
EST: Wednesday, Nov 18, 1998 (18:24)
From: Vancouver

Is there any way to make the sl device without using any oscilloscopes

Michael Smith (
EST: Monday, Nov 23, 1998 (20:41)
From: Waldorf, MD

Two quick questions.

(1) Has the gas bubble been measured for volume and makeup after SBSL has been achieved? I guess what I'm getting at is, is there a noted reduction in the bubble density or volume, or does the bubble retain its beginning characteristics.
(2) Has a semi-solid such as gelatin (sp?) been used in place of water?

I know, I am oviously not a scientist (BSM).

Curtis B (
EST: Monday, Dec 7, 1998 (23:34)
From: Michigan

I have recently become interested in SL and was curious of two things.

1- What is the cheapest but still operational way to build an SL lab

2- I don't understand if the temp in the bubble is so high, does the water temp increase and if not why

Curtis B (
EST: Monday, Dec 7, 1998 (2 3:37)

If any one could E-mail me to the above question I would appreciate it. Aklso
so you know There is an underscore in between Sigpi_specks in my address

Andrew Steer (
EST: Thursday, Dec 10, 1998 (11:33)
From: University College Londo n, ENGLAND.

There's lots of practical advice on setting up a basic Putterman/ScientificAmerican type SL setup on my web page, address above. I hope it w ill answer many of your questions.

Jack (
EST: Thursday, Dec 10, 1998 (14:34)
From: Utah


i am just a high school student but said to be very resourceful but
spelling is not one of my gifts so please bare with me.
me and a fellow student and a teacher have been experamenting to see if
it can be used to start fusion. we have already had one accident and want
to aviod a 2nd (the first was VERY dangours) before we begin the next step
we want to know if anyone has tried useing liqued O2 with a bubbble made
up of 49.5Hydrogen and 49.5Helieum and 1argon or just 50 hydrogen
50 Helium in hopes of aviod another incident.

Mark Ferran (
EST: Monday, Jan 4, 1999 (11:56)
From: Albany NY

1) Has anyone attempted to achieve SonoLuminescence in a pure liquid, th at is BOILING? I.e., will simering/boiling water SL?

2) In water, will hydrogen gas bubbles, such as from a electolytic generator, enable SL?

3) If Hydrogen and Oxygen combined are the gas in the bubbles, in stociometric ratios, 2H + O, will SL cause ignition of the flamable mixture? How does this affect the SL emitted?

Kindly reply by email, to

Pat Sweeney (
EST: Friday, Jan 8, 1999 (18:35)
From: Washington USA

I have found several 25KHz tran sducers of the aprox. size used in SL experiments.
Max input 20 volts RMS 110db @ 10 volts RMS. Would these work for SL experiments?
Thanks for any comments

Pat Sweeney (
EST: Friday, Jan 8, 1999 (23:37)
From: Washington USA

I'm looking for a little information on transducers.
Has anyone tried more than two transducers with success?

Michael (
EST: Thursday, Jan 28, 1999 (13:26)
From: Virginia

Thanks for your fantastic site. I'd like to see Sl occur without
necessarily buying a thousand dollars worth of equipment. I live in
Northern Virginia- you appear to be in VA too. Have any ideas
of people/ places to contact in VA-DC-MD to simply go and see it?

A thousand thanks-- Mike

Shaoqun Zeng (
EST: Friday, March 5, 1999 (09:00)
From: China

Hi, SLers,

I have been trying to find paper on SL from
biological tissue (in vivo or in vitro).
I wonder if anyone could give me some hints.


Eric Dalton (
EST: Saturday, April 3, 1999 (11:33)
From: University of Limerick, Ireland.

My name is Eric, and I am currently trying to achieve S BSL, but failing badly, I have managed to trap bubbles but they are not at the centre of the flask (usual 100 ml) and hold them for about one minute but after that they become unstable and float away. I have tried at a couple of modes and various voltages , but still on joy.
I would really appreciate any ideas or comment that would get my rig up and running.


Nick D. (
EST: Monday, April 12, 1999 (20:01)
From: Western Mass.

Hello! I am a high school student trying to do my AP Physics term
paper on sonoluminescence. My school is pretty affluent, but as far
as I know they don't have any transducers they'd be willing to let me
take home and play with. Is there any more affordable (if maybe less
reliable) substitute for a transducer that could be used?

Renee Clark (
EST: Saturday, April 17, 1999 (04:25)
From: New York

Hi Every one,
I've been looking around at all of the info on SL but I haven't found
everything I'm searching for. My question is: Can SL be produced in a
mixed medium that includes Iridium? This would be relevant to bolide
impacts and mass extinctions if a chain reaction of SL occurred some-
where in a large body of water on Earth. A large enough meteor would
provide the necessary acoustic waves and Iridium is present at all known
impact sights. Thanks for the help!


Kevin (
EST: Saturday, April 17, 1999 (17:20)
From: Long Island, NY

I'm a higschool student wi th very little knwoledge base in physics. I'm considering doing a project on sonoluminescence and am confused about a few things. First of all, if such high temperatures can be reached in the process, can studying it be safe? also, I heard that very littl e energy is released, so then what exactly is the purpose of studying it? Finally, I'm curious as to what it would take to measure the effects of sonoluminescence. In other words, how could I possibly measure the amount of energy realesed. As far as I kno w, I don't have a thermometer that goes up to 10,000 degrees F (that's the number I've heard for how hot it gets.

Joe Reinhardt (Acacia@Adelphia.Net)
EST: Thursday, April 22, 199 9 (21:54)
From: Buffalo

Great Page, lots of great info on SL. I would like to ask a few questions

Now, I may be way off base but, doesn't the human body have thousands of tiny
bubbles of gass dissolved in the blood stream, and in the alvioli? What would
the possible effects of SL be on a human (or any animal) be? Has anyone tested to see
what the effects of unltrasonic frequencies, such as the ones used in Sl, might have
on a medium such as, well to be blunt, blood? What kind of damage, if any, would be
effected on the cells, not only in animals, but in plants? I realize I may be way
off any scientific thought here, but I would love any comments, good/bad/otherwise.
Thank you for your time, and again, great page.
Joseph Reinhardt

Joseph Reinhardt (
EST: Thursday, April 22, 1999 (22:03)
From: New York

I forgot one question I had. What is the effect if you increase the bubble size?
Is there only a certain size that SL will occur at? Thnk you.

Joseph Reinhardt

Nick D. (see above)
EST: Sunday, April 25, 1999 (12:54)
link:see above

I'm not SL scholar, but I think I know enough about it
to answer a few questions:

1) The high temperature is localized in a volume so small
it's practically a point. Nothing is going to explode on you.
It's safe.

2) Some people think study of sonoluminescense could teach us
how to create affordable, controlled fusion on a bigger scale.
Others think we could use sonoluminescense's high emission
frequency to photograph chemical reactions.

3) It can't be measured with a thermometer -- the thermometer would
measure the average temperature of the water, not just the bubble.
Also, the insertion of a thermometer would disturb the conditions
necessary for SBSL. The temperature has been estimated by studying
the light frequency given off by the bubble -- the same process used
to measure the temperature of stars. SL could have a temperature in
the millions of degrees range, but because water does not allow beams
of energy that high through, nobody knows if they are being created or not.


I could be way off base, but I don't think internal SL would do
any significant damage. The conditions for SBSL don't exist in the
human body; at best you'd get unstable MBSL. Even then, the short,
small-energied bursts of UV light given off by these ephemeral bubbles
would probably not have enough oomph to damage cells.

But I don't know much about SL, and I know less about medicine. If I'm
wrong, please correct me, somebody.

Renee Clark (see above)
EST: Tuesday, April 27, 1999 (15:40)
From: New York

This is a response to Joe's question about the effect of SL in the
bloodstream. Actually there is a field of alternative medicine called
bioresonance that involves the use of different frequencies of sound
to restore the body to health. The theory is that every part of the
body has an optimal frequency and when disturbed sickness results, from
asthma to cancer. At the moment light waves are used to restore the
frequency, but it would work with sound as well. There are some sights
on the web that would explain it in more detail than I can give you
here, and a nurse in PA is coming out with a textbook on it if you care
to know more.

EST: Wednesday, May 26, 1999 (20:38)
From: USA

I recently achieved sonoluminescence using an apparatus similar to the one described in the infamous Scientific American article. The ke y to my success was the use of a very high dirve voltage for the piezoelectric transducers. I have seen sonoluminescence when driving the transducers with anywhere from 900V-1500V. I believe that the high amplitude was necessary because the 100 mL flask I was using had poor acoustic properties.

The high voltage was produced using a transformer and a tuned circuit design that resonated at the optimum frequency for sonoluminescence (25.3 kHz for my flask).

I would be glad to answer any questions concerning my experiment or sonoluminescence in general.

Mike (
EST: Friday, May 28, 1999 (20:13)
From: PA

Hel lo everyone I am a senior physics major at millersville university. I am looking for a senior thesis that will knock the socks off the department and this sounds very interesting. I have been shot down about three times now with projects (radio telescop e, quasicrystal structure analysis...). Any ideas that can help would be appreciated. This sounds really fascinating if I can grab the proff's attention!!

EST: Friday, June 4, 1999 (13:45)
From: TC


EST: Friday, June 25, 1999 (00:38)


I'm a grade 12 student from TORONTO. My friend and I tried to do
the sonoluminescence project as described in SCIENTIFIC AMERICA.
We ordered all the stuff, but we couldn't get the bubble to suspend
in the tube for a long enough period of time to get the effect.

I was wondering is there anyone who knows what the problem might be?

thanx alot

Brian (
EST: Saturday, June 26, 1999 (14:04)
From: Oregon

Hi! I've been working on Sonoluminescence Research for approximately 3 weeks now and in response to Kevork's question the main problems we have had in getting a bubble to emit light have revolved around the water and the frequency/amplitude. The distilled water should be freshly degassed and cooled in an ice bath. Old water finds a way to reabsorb enough gas to prevent luminescence and chilled water has in some journal articles resulted in 100x brightness. That is the easier part. Tweaking with frequency and amplitude to produce light can be a tricky business, even with oscilloscopes. Sometimes nothing seems to work, but keep trying. Usually the most important aspect in physics projects is patience.

Brian (see above)
EST: Saturday, J une 26, 1999 (14:08)
From: Oregon

In response to Andrew above....Wow, that is a high voltage! The maximum we usually have entering the transducers is less than 20 V. Are you sure you aren't forcing resonance at the wrong frequency though your high amplitude?

Aaron (
EST: Tuesday, July 6, 1999 (13:56)
From: New York

I'm doing some research on sonoluminescence and plan to start some experimentation in the near future. Does anyone know a good guide for setting up an apparatus to prodcue sonoluminescence?

You can email me ( or repost to this group, whichever is easier for you. thanks a lot!


long luu
EST: Wednesday, July 21, 1999 (00:49)
From: australia

this may be like the most stupid question but im in my school libary im about to reserach this topic and i dont know how to go about it can anyone help my school is in w.a. called willettion.s.h.s

Phil (
EST: Sunday, July 25, 1999 (10:27)
From: australia

Hello Long...
I go to Rossmoyne SHS, just down the road from you, and would like
to get in contact and see what you have discovered about SL. I am
considering doing a Physics project on the phenomenon. Feel free to
email me...anyone...I am just interested in the theory, not the
practical, as I have maybe 3 weeks for my (written) assignment ;)


hilary_155 (
EST: Saturday, July 31, 1999 (01:57)
From: pgh pa
link:http:/ /


Alex Borghgraef (
EST: Thursday, Aug 26, 1999 (09:56)
From: Belgium

I'm doing a work on the quantum vacuum radiation theories for
SL. I'd like to dedicate a short paragraph to the non-Casimir based
theories for SL, but I haven't found much so far. Can anyone point me
to an overview of these theories?


Alan Cavanagh (
EST: Monday, Aug 30, 1999 (08:50)
From: Winchester, VA

Has anyone has attempted to use more than two p iezoceremic transducers?
Specifically I would be interested to know if aligning six transducers
in three axis with each pair transmitting 120 deg out of phase produces
in signifigant changes in observations.
Thank you in advance for any responses.

EST: Monday, Aug 30, 1999 (09:29)
From: Winchester, VA

To Gary from TC: A preferred method obtaining hydrogen is
electrolysis of water (no flame requried).

Eric Spear (
EST: Monday, Aug 30, 1999 (20:45)
From: Houston, TX

I am a student at Klien Oak High School, and getting ready for science fair. My project is to see if SL, by way of the extrme temp. it generates can be used to purify water in large amounts. I was thinking that the high temp. would brake down any chem ical bond, including water, but H and O tend to reintergrate very easly, while other chemical bond don't. I could use any help out there, and it would be greatly appreciated!!


Scott (
EST: Thursday, Sept 2, 1999 (14:16)
From: University of California Davis, physics

Dear Whomever has a working SL setup,

I have been goofing around with this SL thing for quite
some time now, however I have not seen any light.

My setup is completely the same as outlined in Scientific American.
In addition I have a Tektronix CFG280 function generator which is
highly precise at discriminating small units of frequency. So I am
able to keep my bubble's at resonance for long durations of time, up
to about 40 minutes.

My details are as follows:
1st fundamental resonance frequency 30.4 KHz
Microphone usually only 0.6 V, but I have got it up to 8 V before
Input voltage same (0.6V)

I have tried thinking about possible problems... such as...
-Speaker orrientation, one of my piezoelectric drive tranducers is
not alligned true, it is off about 5-10 degrees (had some problems
when the glue dried... it slipped), but I have trapped many bubbles
in dead center of my flask, honest, it is just barely noticable that
it is off of true. Anyway, by adjusting the drive amplitude, I can
hold a bubble at different levels in the flask (increase the amp it
goes lower, decrease the amp and the bubble wants to go to the
-Frequency Generator, like I said, I have a really nice one, and after
I fried the audio amplifier I had, I now use the frequency generator
as my audio amplifier (and have got it up to 8V with this setup)
-Inductor, very easily tuned, I have 4 small inductors in the circuit.
-Light Detection, I moved rooms to a room without any windows, because
even when opperating late at night, street lights from outside would
maybe make the light that I am trying to see unobservable, so now I am
in total darkness.
-Degassing of water, done as outlined in the article.
-H2O, my water is a double distilled deionized water from the medical
school at UCDavis, it is very pure stuff, called milliepore.
-Dopping of water, I got some nice bubbles trapped when I dopped the
water with a ballon full of 3 nine's pure He gas. But typically I
do not do this.
-100ml round bottom, thus far I have only done my experiments in
one flask

Okay friends, now let's move into the question and answer period,
where you prove how good you really are by answering my questions.

1) What is the most objectionable/problematic part of my setup?
[I seem to be close, stable long time standing bubble]
2) Why didn't I see any light with a stable trapped bubble and
8 V p-p (peak to peak off of the mic)?
3) I am seeing two distinc resonances, one I believe is the circuit,
and the other I believe is the flask (and not really so much of
the flask and water system because when ran dry the frequency of
resonance did not change). The two resonance frequencies are
pretty close together at lower frequencies, such as the
fundamental frequency is very close, but as you increase the
frequency and find other resonance frequencies, the two get spread
more and more apart, such as 60 KHz, but now to the question, the
lower frequency shares more in common between the two frequencies
however, I can trap much larger bubbles at higher frequencies,
what is the physical logic behind this observation?
4) Do I need an audio amplifier if I can get an output of 8V p-p
from my function generator?
5) If I am able to trap bubbles in the center of my flask, for long
periods of time, and one of the drive transducers is a bit off,
should I attempt to separate, and reglue with another flask (good/
bad experiences doing this?)?

Thank you very very much,

Gil Salzman (;
EST: Thursday, Sept 2, 1999 (16:28)
From: New College of the University of South Florida

For what it's worth, this may interest some of you:

I am a Physics student currently involved in the hydraulic valve industry where sonoluminescence is encountered quite frequently. In fact, we have even gone so far as to make "hydraulic light bulbs" that will dimly cast a blueish-purple glow upon a r oom. The way it is usually produced is quite simple: metering relatively high pressures (for hydraulic systems, i.e. 3000-5000 psi) at very, very low flow rates. Thus, "burning up" lots of horespower in very little hydraulic fluid. The fluid we use is standard grade hydraulic oil--roughly SAE-50 weight. Just as interesting (well, maybe not quite), though, are the after-effects of SL occurences within a hydraulic system. Typical systems are controlled by component valves placed within a metal block ma nifold, where the valves do their work: relieving, checking, controling flow, etc. Valves that most typically produce SL, are the relieving variety or one's that contain a relief function: relief valves and some load-holding valves (aka-counterbalance va lves). For, in reducing line pressure, they "meter" lots of horsepower. (For instance, an anular area a few thousandths of an inch wide by roughly 2/3" in dia. may be responsable for metering 5000 psi.) When SL occurs within a valve, the effects are de vastating. Heat-treated, hardened steel is melted and deformed. Whatever the bubbles come into contact with, they destroy. Expensive alloys, even, are helpless to SL events. It is important to note, however, that destruction is not immediate. Dependi ng upon environmental condition, though, deformation can take place and proceed quite quickly (minutes...). Within the metal manifolds which the valves fit into, SL evidence is very easy to spot. The manifolds are typically made from either aluminum, ste al (un-hardened), or ductile iron. Unless the valves are taken out routinely and things are looked over (unlikely, due to obvious reasons), detection of possible SL events is impossible until failure occurs. This takes place in the form of what can best be described as a worm-hole that very randomly "eats" its way through the manifold from the valve housing or cavity up to the surface of the manifold. And this concludes my two-cent submittance.

Gustavo Guandalini (
EST: Saturday, Sept 4, 1999 (08:30)
From: Curitiba, Brazil

Hi, SL'ers. I'm a 16 year old boy and last year I was invited to
participate in a group of applied search, to participate in a kind
of Scientific Exhibition, at UNICAMP (University of Campinas), and
our project was produce sonoluminescence. Well, after 6 months of hard
work, we produced the sonoluminescence, with the help of Daniel Benke
( and Álvaro Silviero Junior. Well, after working
a lot and loosing a little of my capacity to listen things (i think
it's because we stayed listening that sound all the day, but we
couldn't hear it, cause it was over 25kHz. After sum hours, everybody
was having a terrible headache. Before working on it all of us could
hear an almost 20kHz sound, and after working 6 months on SL, we could
hear until 17,5 - 18 kHz.), we reached the sonoluminescence. We were
almost reaching it, but we only got it after that one piezoelectric's
wires broke. So, after a long and hard work, we got it, but still
nowadays i don't know exactly what will be the future uses and
applications of sonoluminescence. I search for it on the WEB and i
can't understand it, i think that it's because they use specific terms
and i can't understand specific phisics terms in english...So, i would
like to ask you all if anyone of you could explain it to me using
non-specific terms, so i could understand it. Please, send it to, it will be easier for me, or just answer on this
site, no problem. Ok, that's all, and thanks a lot.

Gustavo Guandalini (
EST: Monday, Sept 6, 1999 (14:20)
From: Curitiba, Brazil

Hi Scott
I am a 16 year old boy from Curitiba, Brazil, and last year I was in a group that was trying to
make sonoluminescence to participate in a Science Fair at UNICAMP - University of
Campinas. After 6 months working hard, we almost got the sonoluminescence, so we traveled
to Campinas and our project wasn't working. While we were preparating our project at the
University, one of the piezoelectric's wires broke, and after that we got the sonoluminescence.
We had the same problem that you had: when we glued our piezoelectrics, they were alligned,
but after we waited it to dry, it wasn't anymore. But when we used only one piezoelectric, we
got it. So, as you can see, it's possible to achieve the sonoluminescence using only one
piezoelectric, and it can work on your project.

Gustavo Guandalini (
EST: Monday, Sept 6, 1999 (17:44)
From: Curitiba, Brazil

Hey, Derek, how does the LUMINOL work on sonoluminescence, i mean, what happens that to luminol
be able to make the light stronger? My mother is a farmacologist, so you can use specific terms
to explain me. Also, how does H2O2 (hidrogenium (is it correct?) peroxid)work to make the light
stronger, too?

DoctorQuincy (
EST: Wednesday, Sept 8, 1999 (18:40)
From: Flint, Michigan

Question, does S onoluminescence + Resonant Macrosonic Synthesis = Fusion?

If you don't know what RMS is then listen up.

Two papers presented by Macrosonix at the December 1997 meeting of the
Acoustical Society of America in San Diego, California, discuss using
resonator geometry to control the phases and amplitudes of harmonics
in a waveform, thereby tailoring the waveform to a particular application.
The researchers christened this technique resonant macrosonic synthesis
(RMS). As an epplication of RMS, they used a specifically designed resonator
called a horn-cone (shaped like the bell of an elongated trumpet) to shape
the waveform to avoid the discontinuity characteristic of a shock. The
resulting shock-free sound waves can then be driven at much higher amplitudes.
Recently, researchers at Macrosonix Corporation (Richmond, Virginia) have
reported creating sound waves with energy densities 1600 times higher than was
previously possible.

Some applications of this technology include:
*process control
*process reactors for chemical and pharmaceutical industries
*chambers for separation, agglomeration, levitation, mixing and pulverization
*oil-less compressors for air compression, air conditioning, refrigeration
and natural gas
*non-contaminating compressors and pumps for commercial gases and ultra-pure
and hazardous fluids, particularly for the semiconductor and pharmaceutical
*the conversion of combustible fuels into electric power using RMS pulse combustion

I do not know if this effect has been generated in a liquid medium or other fluid such
as a supercritical fluid. Neither is it clear to me what effect it might have concerning SL,
however, if it is so applicable such an experiment should turn out to be interesting.

Bryan (
EST: Saturday, Sept 11, 1999 (02:57)
From: San Diego, C A

Hi, I'm a senior in high school currently attempting to research SL. Is there anyone out there that could tell me exactly (close enough) what I need to perform SBSL in a cylinder? Shall I need to purchase a more po werful amp than the standard 30? Should I use luminol or another chemical in the solution to amplify the light output? Is there a chemical that responds somewhat dramatically to soft x-rays that I could feed to just outside the bubble? When you cool th e experiment to 0 degrees C, does this mean lowering the temperature of the flask, the water, or the air? I thank anyone greatfully that can assist me in my endeavors. Thx.

Roney (
EST: Friday, Sept 24, 1999 (07:58)
From: MI

So temperatures aren't high enough for fusion, anybody know of any other applications for SL?

Andrea (
EST: Wednesday, Sept 29, 1999 (15:43)
From: U of Maryland

hi everyone,
i am attempting to create SL as an undergrad experiment. the prof i work for insists that he was able to "see the light" repeatedly after a lot of patience and fine tuning. i've been at it for 3 months with no luck whatsoever. i rebuilt the electronic s controlling the circuit and now i am about to remove the old piezo drivers and use new ones. what's the most important thing to remember about attaching them to the glass? i want to avoid high freq interference from bubbles in the epoxy or any other sou rce.
another consideration is isolating the response of the microphone to the cavitation effects (discriminating out the pure sine wave input from the acoustic oscillation). has anyone been able to do that so far? thanks everyone!

EST: Saturday, Oct 2, 1999 (09:20)

Hello all
I am new to this field and my background is electrical engineering and high energy sprk gaps, but has anyone tried to augment the sound field with a high intensity magnetic field. This could lead to stabiliztion of the bubble and possibly location con trol. As i said i am new to SL so forgive me if my question seems droll.

Philip Las Gourgues (
EST: Thursday, Oct 14, 1999 (22:02)
From: Australia


I've already made an unsucessful attempt at sonoluminescence. I think the main problem was the peizo electric transducers I was using. Does anyone know where the appropriate transducers can be bought in small quantities? Preferably in Australia but I don't mind ordering them from overseas.

Any help would be greatly appreciated.


frances rees (
EST: Tuesday, Oct 19, 1999 (23:01)
From: charlottesville va

I am going to do my second year proposal on sonochemistry.
I'm in the chemistry department at UVA. Sonoluminescence sounds
really neat!!! I was wondering if you have the apparatus set up
somewhere???....If so, could I arrange to see "the glow" sometime?
It sounds pretty incredible. Your website has been very helpful.
Does anyone know what is wrong with the European site?? I saw part
of their page a few weeks ago, but now it is defunct...
They had some neat animations.
Thanks again for the great webpage!!!


Deepak Folly (
EST: Monday, Oct 25, 1999 (10:18)
From: South Africa

I am an undergrad trying to establish SL.
I am encountering alot of problems with the 100ml flask;I cannot obtain acoustic resonance.
I have been advised to use a 250mL flask, because the flask has alot of resonant modes.
If anyone can assist please e-mail me at

Christopher R. King (
EST: Monday, Oct 25, 1999 (14:16)
From: College Station, TX


I would like to know where I can get a simple set of instructions to be able to produce a SL experiment. My understanding is that it is delicate to accomplish.

Can someone help me?


Alex (
EST: Tuesday, Oct 26, 1999 (22:53)
From: High School

i would like to know if there is some sort of procedure I could use to demo nstrate sonoluminescence. I understand that it involves an air buble, sound and the conversion of sound to light, but I really need a proceduce, I'm thinking about doing it for my science project, please write back A.S.A.P. Thank You

Derek Stewart (
EST: Friday, Oct 29, 1999 (11:45)
From: Virginia

Hi SL'ers,

I glad to see that the discussion page is helping people communicate
their ideas on sonoluminescence. Many people have asked for information
on how to set up a good SL apparatus. I would like to direct everyone's
attention to a fundamental article on all aspects of SL.

"Defining the Unknowns of Sonoluminescence"
Barber, B.P., Hiller, R.A., Lofstedt, R., Putterman, S.J., and
Weninger, K.R., Physics Reports 281 (1997) 65-143

This article describes the setup with the cylindrical flask, like the
one seen in the Physics Today article. It talks about measuring the
bubble radius, different fluids for SL, and a host of other key issues
that from time to time have been brought up on this discussion page.
It is a must read and for many I think it will help with their setup.

The webpage by Steer also provides a good discussion on SL setup. This
can be found under the SL Links.

I hope this helps!


Nelldoggy Dogg (
EST: Thursday, Nov 4, 1999 (01:23)
From: University at Albany, Albany NY USA

Hello eve ryone!
I am an undergraduate starting researc in sonoluminescence.
My advisor told me that my school just bought a new sonolum. kit.
She told me a little about it and I'm 990ositive that it's the
SL100 kit advertised at
I haven't seen the kit yet, or obviosly worked with it, but if anyone
has and can let me know thier results and any problems they
encountered I would greatly appreciate it.

Thank you,

. (.)
EST: Saturday, Nov 13, 1999 (10:24)
From: .


Dobson (
EST: Wednesday, Nov 24, 1999 (20:27)
From: Newport, WA, USA

What if you conducted the same experiment in ammonia?

DeAnna (Ptchr
EST: Sunday, Nov 28, 1999 (17:34)
From: Kansas City, MO

Would you say that SL is a burning issue in the science community, and should have more publicity?

Jason (
EST: Monday, Nov 29, 1999 (22:52)
From: Dallas, Tx

From what I can tell from the web sites I have seen, the only requirement for SL is to have degassed water, a bubb le, and a high-amplitude standing wave (presumably at resonance because of the magnitude).

I have read that no one has been able to measure the pressure (wave amplitude) within the bubble; however, it would seem that it would be possible to calculate (and probably measure) the pressures of the nodes and antinodes of a standing wave cavity t hat is capable of producing SL (that way you don't have to worry about the effects caused by the bubble). This might give us some ideas about different experimental setups and theories.

Also, what is so special about 25kHz? All the reports I have seen have talked about SL in the range from 24->29 kHz. Is this simply a by-product of the resonant frequencies of the experimental cavities, or does SL not occur at lower (higher) frequen cies. I presume that, if it does occur at lower frequencies, the 25 kHz range was chosen simply because it was outside of human hearing; however, it might be interesting to see the effects of frequency on SL (particularly the energy of the radiation).

Also, have any computer simulations of SL been carried out (to try and develop a method for determining the pressure amplitudes that trap <-> destroy a bubble... might help narrow SL range)?

Dobson (Same as above)
EST: Saturday, Dec 4, 1999 (03:15)
From: Same as above

Micron size fragments of Mg suspended in the NH3 ?Is the idea to get a substantial re action ?

Dobson (SAME)
EST: Saturday, Dec 4, 1999 (06:33)
From: So. Fk. Skookum Creek Washington

Or a Mg nitride'/ ammonia'/ pure oxygen ? This might be a bad idea . UNDO UNDO

Linda Thomas (
EST: Wednesday, Dec 22, 1999 (22:35)
From: Virginia

I got a mic and I can't get it to work. I can hear other people in my conference but they can not hear me. I was told I needed to go to some sight and down load for it to work. But I forgot what the sight name was. Can you help me out.
Linda Thomas

Malte (
EST: Thursday, Jan 6, 19100 (16:53)
From: Nürnberg, Germany

Hi Folks,

I'd like to know whether anyone could give me a reference to a derivation of Navier Stokes equations and such to Reyleigh-Plesset equation. I am also wondering what the ambient radius R0 exactly means, what it describes and so on. For example, why is the pressure exerted onto the bubble wall direct proportional to a sine curve. If the radius decreases so das the surface and thus the pressure should become MUCH greater. Does this pressure only relate to R0? Theoretical advices onto hydrodynamic underst anding of the phenomenon would be greatly appreciated.

However, for those who are still working on their frequency generators, I built one using a PIC which controls AD9850s Direct Digital Synthesizer. It has a resolution of 0.01Hz up to 60MHz. It's relatively cheap but it still will take some time to get the schematics onto a webpage because I am currently working on a thesis paper for school. Anyway it works. Maybe some of you can improve it.


Nelldoggy Dogg (
EST: Friday, Jan 7, 19100 (23:54)
From: USA NY University at Albany SUNY

If anyone cares, the SL100 kit works g reat, my lab partner broke
the cell and they sent us another for free. I was wondering which
theory people think is the most acurate, I did a little research
on the quantum vacuum radiation theory and it doesn't seem to hold
up too well. I also read a little about the jet formation theory
and it seemed to answer more questions than the quantum theory.
Any info or help finding it would be appreciated.


Colleen Cruikshank (
EST: Sunday, Jan 9, 19100 (10:02)
From: La Plata, Maryland

I just learned about SL as a possibility for a sc ience project.
Upon researching it, I'm finding it really fascinating. Trouble is,
I'm in high school (meaning I have very limited physics background).
I'd really like to see if I can get a simple SL experiment set up.
Can anyone help me as far as finding the simplest, most inexpensive
way to successfully create SL? Please E-mail. THANKS!

Derrick Knight (
EST: Monday, Jan 10, 19100 (15:44)
From: Sioux Falls, SD


I was wondering if anyone knew anything about MBSL in the human body.
One of my proffesors is defending his doctoral thesis on curing cancer with light.
I thought at one time saw something on the web about MBSL occuring in the body, but
I can't it now. I was wondering how you acheive resonance and what the approx. instensity

Derrick Knight (
EST: Monday, Jan 10, 19100 (15:48)

S orry, I wasn't finished, but somehow my partial message got posted.
I was wondering about the intensity and wavelength of the emitted light.


observer (dna)
EST: Sunday, Jan 16, 19100 (05:01)
From: usa

Malte Re; RO ? See tu darmstdt

Chris Montini (
EST: Tuesday, Jan 18, 19100 (20:55)
From: Nashville, TN

Here's a theory:
When the liquid resonates, it becomes a "super lens" which refracts ambient light into the bubble, causing an effect that looks like light energy being formed from sound energy.

Cyril Tai (
EST: Thursday, Jan 20, 19100 (16:37)
From: Urbana, IL

I've just revived my interest in SL. I did a high school project on estimating the temp of MBSL bubbles, assuming the radiation is blackbody in nature. Anyway, so the power vs freq measurements correlated with a temp on the order of 30,0000K. I tho ught this was really cool, but of course, the big problem is whether if it's blackbody or not.

I am wondering if there's work out there that's similar to D.F Gaitan's dissertation. In my opinion, it was very useful in making MBSL work for me.

If anyone is getting trouble trying to get SBSL, then you might was to look for MBSL, cause it tends to happen more easily. It's characerized by spider-like webs.

Anywho, that's my two-cents on the subject of SL...


Chris Cope Morgan (
EST: Sunday, Jan 23, 19100 (06:35)
From: South Africa

Please bear with me if I am slightly "off topic" but maybe one of you SL boffins can help me. I am researching the feasability of using ultrasonic devices to:
1: Avoid algae growth in swimming pools
2: Cleaning black algae and stains from Swimming ceramic tiling along the sryface.

Can anyone provide me some information or links to suitable sites.

Will appreciate any input.


Chris Cope Morgan

Tasha Clarke (
EST: Monday, Jan 24, 19100 (17:26)
From: Mississippi

Yes, I think that the grading system af fects the way students achieve. The grading system make students feel that if someone make a higher grade that them then someone has already beat them to it.

Dobson D. (sab)
EST: Monday, Feb 7, 19100 (00:51)
From: sab

How could you target specific cells ? As for medicinal purposes . Give me a while to think about it .

Dobson D. (SAB)
EST: Monday, Feb 7, 19100 (01:11)
From: USA

Is somewhere they SL molecules inside capillaries of chloriphyl to m ove a data stream ? As in artificial intelligence ? Come on do something .

Dobson (same)
EST: Wednesday, Feb 9, 19100 (02:09)
From: same
link:http://same/< br>
What will Sl do to a tumor ? Maybe SL could lower triglycerides [LDL] or used to process food . Remove the fat and microrganism that is unhealthy .A in the mfg. of drugs . Can it cause the spine to discharge an impulse at the site of an injury ?

dsolis (
EST: Monday, Feb 28, 19100 (02:10)
From: cal poly

Heres some food for thought. A stable bubble may be achieved using a square wave input to the piezzos, however, sonoluminescence will not occur. Any thought on whether or not the collapse will still be "adiabatic", and by having a square wave, will the passing of the pressure node(now imediatly going to the minimum and staying there) through the flask dominate over the surface tension effects in the cavitation process? Hmmm.

Bob (\\\\\\\\\)
EST: Tuesday, Feb 29, 19100 (04:39)
From: SFSC

I think there would be no loss of heat . An experiment in a doughnut shape vessel with multiple resonators located out of line of sight of each other might answer your inquiry about surface tension .If the resonaters emit in sequence the interaction of some of the waves at the wave perimeter should produce SL .

Hung Too^<\} (^(<>/<<)
EST: Friday, March 3, 19100 (01:24)
From: China

Do you explain there is a wave within the wave ? Or there is a crust or shell on the wave ?

Dobson D (
EST: Saturday, March 4, 19100 (19:28)
From: Skookum Creek Wa

Are we still talking about shadow puppets ? This is not cognitive.

Ong Eng Huat (
EST: Sunday, March 12, 19100 (22:47)
From: Singapore

hello, I am currently a undergrad in the National University of Singapore doing an experiment on SBSL. In the event, we tried to use an audio amplifier to power the experiment. Nevertheless, we couldn't get the required frequency and power needed as teh bandwidth for audio is quite limited at around 20-24 Khz. We are now in need of a power amplifier to power the system.

Any suggestions where we can get one?

Dallas2881 (Dallas2881@EMAIL.COM)
EST: Tuesday, March 21, 19100 (16:36)

Has anyone THOUGHT OF THE POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS OF THE OUTCOME OF FINDING JUST THE RADIUS of the bubble.Look what those fools did w/ just one single statement that coldfusion was achieved.If the radius of the bubble can be measured all the rest of the project will fall into line.We need to be focusing our efforts into harnassing the technologies and the overwhelming energy that can be harrnessed from this single infinately hot little bubble.If your not trying to concentrate the energy or trying to reproduce it cheaply then why are you doing it, alot of you are trying to solve meaningless questions that wont advance yor research only delay your findings.

Malte (
EST: Tuesday, March 28, 19100 (18:02)
From: Germany

Hi there,

Anyone interested still at the beginning of achieving sonoluminescence might try my paper (German).


Duncan Railton (
EST: Monday, April 10, 19100 (09:55)
From: Sheffield, England


I was wondering if you could tell me anything about the spectroscopic techniques which would be
useful when looking at the spectrum from sonoluminescence.

This would be most helpful to my 4th year University essay.


Paul Erickson (
EST: Wednesday, April 12, 19100 (16:30)
From: Everett, WA

Well I am toying with a theory.

I would like to suggest that the tiny bubble is not filled with air, but that it is a vacuum. If sound energy cannot travel through a vacuum then what happens to the mechanical energy? I suggest that the mechanical energy is stored in the vacuum bubble, which then discharges the energy as light and heat.

Joseph Nguyen (
EST: Wednesday, April 12, 19100 (16:38)
From: Vietnam

Dear Sir/Madam:
I need information about High Schools that accept international students ( they issue I-20 forms)

John Habberton (
EST: Friday, April 21, 19100 (10:25)
From: Falls Church, VA

recently joined here with uername
and a password

John Habberton (
EST: Friday, April 21, 19100 (10:30)
From: Falls Church, VA

Just joined and have appaently valid user name and password

John Habberton (
EST: Friday, April 21, 19100 (10:31)
From: Falls Church, VA

Just joined and have appaently valid user name and password

Schneiter Flo (
EST: Thursday, April 27, 19100 (07:48)
From: Switzerland, Europe

I´m looking for former SAE Audio Engineer Students. As I´m writing my dissertation about market research, I try to contact former SAE students to ask them about what they did after finishing schoo.
So, if you´ve been at the SAE, or you know anybody who has been there, please contact me. Thanks a lot.


Ian Gorton (
EST: Tuesday, May 2, 19100 (07:25)
From: Brighton, England.

I am a student studying music technology, and am finding it difficult to research acoustics for my dissertation. I hope your site and dicussion group will open new lines of thought.

Bryan DeLong (
EST: Wednesday, May 3, 19100 (11:45)
From: Arkansas School For Math and Science

Fellow SL'ers,

I am embarking on a science fair project that involves SL. I am going to test the luminousity of the different noble gases when used as the bubble's contents, so to speak. My hypothesis is argon due to earlier experiments that show argon could be the light giving factor in SL. I would like to know where I could pick up some pure gases for a fairly cheap price (maybe free, huh). Any suggestions. Also, Is my project even feasible?

As much feedback as possible would be helpful.

Mikael Gehlen (
EST: Thursday, May 18, 19100 (02:51)
From: Sweden

Dear Sir/Madam
My name is Mikael Gehlen and I am working for a Swedish company, which develops manufactures and market a new type of spectrograph that could be of some interest for you.

A short presentation:

The Mechelle is an advanced user-friendly, portable instrument that requires no previous knowledge of the principles of spectral recording. The spectrograph/spectroradiometer records from UV to NIR simultaneously without any scanning or moving optical parts. The method means no overlapping wavelengths and continues spectra.

An optical fibre can be used to pick up the light. It can be connected directly to your experiment or to standard accessories such as our collector/collimator that couples light from remote and near-by objects into the fibre.

If you have any questions about the performance of the system or you need a quotation, please do not hesitate to contact us by phone or by e-mail More information is also available from our homepage

Best regards

Mikael Gehlen

EST: Tuesday, May 23, 19100 (22:07)
From: nd

what does sonoluminescence mean

aintthink (
EST: Friday, June 2, 19100 (01:14)
From: new york

What is slers?

John Wells (
EST: Tuesday, June 20, 19100 (23:58)
From: Brooklyn

My name is John Wells. I currently have a project involving 2 robots that travel on a closed loop track. My problem is getting a circuit that will enable me to use ultrasonics as a collision avoidance system. Specifically, I need to have transducers that operate at different frequencies so the signals dont get confused when the robots approach each other. Any help would be greatly appreciated....

georg (
EST: Wednesday, June 21, 19100 (08:12)
From: egypt

I would like to join your group

Brian Murphy (
EST: Monday, July 3, 19100 (03:29)
From: Los Angeles

I really don't know enough about this to ask these questions, but it
crossed my mind, and I was wondering whether they had crossed any
other minds. Does the bubble need to be moving in the opposite
direction of the ultrasonic waves? I guess what I'm really wondering
is would it have a larger range of expasion and contraction if it was
in a weightless environment and/or being bombarded from every/multiple
angles? I would bet that these questions have been asked, but I
haven't read enough about it to know. Would an expert please reply
with a simple answer. Thank you.

Martin Gardener (
EST: Tuesday, July 4, 19100 (07:20)
From: Nottingham Trent University, UK

I have a question about sonochemistry in general, but not sonoluminescence. sorry. ;) Ive got a solid metal hydroxide in a sonic bath. If I ultrasonicate it, nothing much happens. If I add a tiny amount of sulphate, I get complete metal oxide formation. I have come up with a theoretical catalytic cycle that works out fine according to calcualtions, but has anyone any idea why in particular I NEED ultrasonication to get it to work. Is the H2O > H. + OH. reaction important or is it just because of inc. surface area, and so inc. dissolution rates maybe? (I think the reaction takes place during dissolution of solid phase possibly).

ANy idea? I dont know much about sonochemistry Im afraid! ;)

Email me rather than reply to this message board because I probably wont check here often.

Thanks. :)


Bruno André Charneski (
EST: Wednesday, July 12, 19100 (16:22)
From: Curitiba-Brazil

I am doing a science projecton SL and need some more info.

Richard (
EST: Sunday, July 16, 19100 (12:15)
From: Bremerton, WA

I relly don't see how SL could be a fusion reactuon, after all, what would be makeing the intense energy needed to fuse atoms to each other. However, SL does look just like Zero Point Energy was supposed to; a "bubble" of lower denseity expanding and contraction at high speeds in a denser medium. Just a thought

Luke Spink (
EST: Tuesday, July 18, 19100 (12:08)
From: California

Hello fellow Sonoluminites!
I simply have a question to ask....where can I get the parts to make a sonoluminescent kit and not spend thousands of dollars on the parts or on by a kit by itself? Because all of the other websites that I've looked up have these huge prices for the kits, so I was wondering if any of you know what web site or store might offer something a little bit more affordable. Thanks.


EST: Monday, July 24, 19100 (18:40)


EST: Wednesday, July 26, 19100 (15:58)


Lorne Green (
EST: Thursday, Aug 10, 19100 (20:30)
From: God

I don't know much about physics, but I think it would be cool to use Sonoluminescence in an experiment involving Bose-Einstein condensation. I beleive that freezing the water with bubble suspended in it, then use SL to bring out the Zero-point energy.

JOrdan (
EST: Friday, Aug 18, 19100 (14:58)
From: Canada

my name is Jordan. I wnat to find out why does sound energy can not travel in a vacuum?
thx very much

Joel (
EST: Tuesday, Aug 29, 19100 (08:44)
From: Massachusettes

Hi my name is Joel Faure and I am 14 yrs old and let me give you some Background
I did a sonoluminescence project and got 2nd place in the regional and 1st place in the state for physics. I am continuing further to the Discovery Young Scientist Challenge 2000(DYSC) I am a little nervous because I love science and I loved to do SL but this is really getting to me about the DYSC. The prizes everyone wins something(I don't want a prize I just want to be there)All paid trip(I don't want a Hotel if I could be there if I chose to go in a dumpster I would).

I have a theory about SL and that is:
If you are familiar to the puttermans view. When the tiny bubbles are verging together there are some water molecules trapped inside the air bubble but they can't get out becausethe acoustics are making the bubble very firm. When it the bubble expands it brings the water with it then it collapses by pressure outside and a vacuum inside. When it collapses and forms light. It breaks the bonds of hydrogen and oxygen, the hydrogen is very light that it goes strait up and the sound can't keep it in there but the oxygen is still lingering around because it is heavier it recombines like on top but in a smaller scale and the same thing happens over and over again. So you now formed an instant electrolysis with the water so now you can use the hydrogen for fuel and experiment purposes. Does that sound OK? Well thats my theory of SL

Hope you like it.


Yoni (
EST: Thursday, Sept 14, 19100 (00:41)
From: TX

Scientists have had problems detecting radiation produced in the phenominon of sonoluminescence. Water obsorbs radiation that may be emitted that could offer invaluable information. Sensors could be placed inside inside the water. The sensors could be designed to get close enough to the bubble in order to make key measurements of other energies.

Yoni (
EST: Thursday, Sept 14, 19100 (01:10)
From: TX

.Scientists have had problems detecting radiation produced in the phenominon of sonoluminescence. Water obsorbs radiation that may be emitted. Invaluable information could be gathered by sensors placed inside inside the water. The sensors could be designed to get close enough to the bubble in order to make key measurements of other energies. If anyone has any ideas or objections to this idea send some electrons my way. What other phenomina or theory will be discovered before or after sonoluminescence is fully understood. Not to mention understanding our world that was flat at one time.

Steve Acworth
EST: Friday, Sept 22, 19100 (06:12)
From: Aberaeron, West Wales, U.K. 01545 570668

Sorry, borrowed time - public library terminal (steam age)

Harmonic multiplication of sonoluminescence?

I think I know how to do it !

Steve Acworth (newstonehenge@sothis.screamingnet)
EST: Friday, Sept 22, 19100 (06:19)
From: Aberaeron, West Wales, U.K. 01545 570668

Sorry, borrowed time - public library terminal (steam age)

Harmonic multiplication of sonoluminescence?

I think I know how to do it !

Lisa (Lisa8op)
EST: Saturday, Oct 14, 19100 (18:28)
From: staten Island

i actully have a question. What is luminol?

Sadi KHan (
EST: Wednesday, Oct 18, 19100 (14:59)
From: Canada, ALthough I am living in America
link:I don't have one

How could I make an apparratus that produces SL bubbles and would be time-efficient to build. I'm in grade 10 and would like to submit a project on SL for The high school science fair

danielle (
EST: Friday, Oct 20, 19100 (19:45)
From: Kailua, Hawaii

I am just starting as a freshman and immediately was assigned to create a science project...well i am going to try to use sound to make heat....can you give me any knowledge you might have because i am totaly lost!

Cliff Geller (
EST: Monday, Oct 23, 19100 (16:41)
From: Novastar Technologies Boca Raton, Florida

We are in the process of evaluating the technological feasibility of a Blue Light Sonoluminescence Laser and would appreciate some feedback from the group. ULTRASONIC BLUE LIGHT LASER

Novastar’s Blue Light Laser is the only blue light laser powered by ultrasound to be granted a patent by the United States Patent Office. Our laser uses the phenomena of sonoluminescence, which was discovered in 1931, to create blue light. The device consists of a closed, geometrically precise dimensioned chamber filled with water and a noble gas, with an ultrasonic transducer at one end and a quartz glass window at the other far end. Through the process of cavitation, which causes sonoluminescence, the ultrasonic waves generated by the transducer interact with the water and noble gas at the other end of the chamber and produce blue light radiation. The blue light radiation exits the far end of the chamber through the quartz glass window. No moving parts, no cooling systems, no multi-step processes required: simply put, sound energy creates light via cavitation/sonoluminescence.

Although Novastar’s blue light laser is elegantly simple in design, the scientific principles, which make it work, are complex. Ultrasonic waves create differing results at different frequencies and amplitudes. When Novastar selects the appropriate wave and energy characteristics, the energy of the sound waves emitted by the ultrasonic transducer cause “cavitation” to occur. Cavitation is the formation of bubbles at the far end of the water filled chamber. These bubbles result from the repeated pattern of compressing (pressurizing) and then rarefying (decreasing the pressure) the water by the force of the high-energy longitudinal ultrasound waves. During the rarefaction, phase, the ultrasound pressure on the bubbles is reduced and the cavitated bubbles absorb the minimum amount of ultrasound energy, and the bubbles’ radii expand like balloons blowing up. Conversely, during the compression phase, the amount of energy and pressure on the bubbles is increased, causing the cavitated bubbles to violently collapse due to maximum ultrasonic energy absorbed thereby. At the point of collapse, each bubble emits a flash of blue light. Each bubble collapsing results in blue light emission; the phenomena generating this blue light is known as sonoluminescence. The sonoluminescent generated blue light waves then radiate from the far end of the closed chamber through the quartz glass window.

Cavitation in water occurs only with the use of ultrasound within a specific high frequency range, approximately between 10,000Hz to 100,000Hz. In Novastar’s blue light laser, increasing the electric power pulse that energizes the ultrasonic transducer produces this frequency range. The energy density produced by the transducer is then further increased in several ways, including using a tapering chamber and by using a special focusing transducer. This combination creates the high energy density and acoustic radiation pressure field necessary to cause cavitation with the resulting sonoluminescence occurring.
2102- Ultrasonic Blue Light Laser

Pre-Prototype Specification Sheet

U.S. Patent # 5,982,801Ultrasonic Blue Light Laser Projected Benefits:· High stability at room temperature· Sonoluminescence emits visible blue light, ultraviolet light and soft x-rays· The Laser’s output can be filtered to emit all or just one of the following: Blue Light, Ultraviolet Light and Soft X-rays· Visible Blue Light for Laser Applications· Ultraviolet Light Emission for Bio-Medical Applications· Soft X-Rays for the Medical, Bio-Medical and Veterinarian Markets and Scientific Non-Destructive Testing

Sadi Khan (
EST: Thursday, Nov 2, 19100 (12:02)
From: United States

I would really like to know the difference between the transducers for $3 and the more expensive ones.
I'm doing a project on sonoluminescence for my grade 10 science fair project.


L.S. (OBringerofLightO)
EST: Wednesday, Nov 15, 19100 (22:52)
From: California

What do any of you guys think would happen if water that has been sonoluminized was applied to the skin? Or to the hair of a human or other mammals? I have a very exciting theory, but I would like to hear your comments on such a thing, and or what your results were by doing something like this.


Bob (
EST: Sunday, Nov 19, 19100 (16:30)

I'm interested in doing a sci project on SL and i need more info. respond please. thanx

William Warrick (
EST: Sunday, Nov 19, 19100 (22:51)
From: Dayton,Ohio

i was just wondering what the effect of heated H2O2 had on simple liver and potato enzymes. Does the temperature effect it at all? If so how?

Alyssa (
EST: Monday, Nov 20, 19100 (21:19)
From: MA

I am hoping to do a science fair project on sonoluminescense but dont know much about it. Can anyone please send me information or websites to my email address asap?!? Would this make a good science fair experiment or should i just forget it and something else? Please help i have no idea about SL but am willing to learn. Thanx~*~*Alyssa

Sadi Khan (
EST: Saturday, Nov 25, 19100 (21:07)
From: US

I was planning to shoot a infrared and ultraviolet laser through the bubble since I can approximate the location of the bubble by the light emitted from it. Does anyone know what would happen.
What wouldhappen if I tried Supercold Hydrogen ( i forget if its hydrogen or helium) as the gas inside the bubble, it is supposed to contain matallic properties if cooled beyond a certain point?
Thanks A lot.

William T. Greentaner (
EST: Sunday, Dec 3, 19100 (11:51)
From: Christiansburg,Ohio

Looking to open a dialogue with those that are currently studying SL research. A reply would be most appreciated.

Alyssa (PeanutAG1)
EST: Sunday, Dec 3, 19100 (12:27)
From: MA

Does anyone who has demonstrated SL have their old assembled apparatus that I could borrow??? I am trying to produce SL for a science experiment at school but don't have much time!! Please W/B if u know where i can borrow one or if you have one I can borrow!!!

ly (
EST: Tuesday, Dec 5, 19100 (22:24)
From: china

I am intrested in the combustion acoustic generation.

John Baker (toocool_545)
EST: Friday, Dec 8, 19100 (11:46)
From: White Castle

How do you plan to make a hydraulic light bulb? Could it be possible
maybe to get the materials you need? I am doing a science experiment
on constructing a light bulb. Can you snd me any ideas or any list of
materials you think I might need. Thank you!

William Greentaner (
EST: Saturday, Dec 30, 19100 (00:04)
From: Christiansburg,Ohio

resonance frequencies of materials other than glass

Carey Treesh (
EST: Saturday, Jan 6, 19101 (13:48)
From: Indiana

This is just a theory, but hey...the thing on the web page said don't be bashfull...

The beaker of water has a resonate freq. So if you induce energy in the from of sound or vibration into this beaker at it's resonate freq, the beaker act's like an amplifier. This is a given....

If you keep putting more and more force (amplidute) into this thing, then the energy level will increase, and since there is really no place for it to go, it concentrates in the water.

The atom's of H and O then start to get 'excited' just as if you where pumping large amounts of electricty thru them, they would then 'jump' up to a higher "valence??" state, but they would not stay up there very long...thus then they would "fall" back into their nomral state....

As we all know, when this happens, a photon is realased. The light we see is proabaly based on the frequeny at wich these excited electrons are jumping up and then back down. This frequency is more then likely based on the physical make up of the water, in combinaton with the resonate frequency.

What happens if a larger or smaller beaker is used? The resonate freq is now differenct....dose the color of the light emited change??

Could this just be a real large and complex way to imitate what gose on inside of an L.E.D.??

Im just a computer nerd. But I have always been intreeged by things that 'glow'. Is there any substance that emites light when exposed to small (or large) amounts of radioactivity? It would intersting to obtain something that is radioactive, yet so week that it would be safe, then 'coat' this with this substance, and obtain a light source (lite stick?) that would last many many years without the need of additional power or energy.


Malte Avenhaus (
EST: Sunday, Jan 7, 19101 (08:35)
From: Germany

In reply to Carey Treesh

Hi Carey,

A round-bottom flask to some degree really acts as an amplifier soundwaves radiated by two equatorially aligned opposing piezos. (However, you can get sonoluminescence in a cube of a coca cola cup or such as well)

In the bubble there's mosty a noble gas which gets excited and emits photons such as you've described. However, it's not the sound frequency which is characteristic for the frequency of the photons (colour) but for the frequency of light bursts. Say you drive the the flask with a resonance frequency of 25kHz you could see 25000 peaks on an oscilloscope connected to a photo-diode. However, this probably won't work as these flashes might be too short to be "realized" by the diode or to be displayed on the oscilloscope. That your eye still can see a blue light depends on the way photons excite the rhodopsin molecules in your eye (they acts like "integrating" photons to a certain degree)

The colour or frequency of photons emitted as a consequence does not depend on the sound frequency but what happens on the atomic level. As you said, each electron "falling" back to a ground state in an atom emits a photon with a characteristic colour (frequency) this directly is related to the difference of the energy states the electron "gives up" and hols in the end. As a matter of fact, at the instant of a burst, the electrons are free (plasma) and not "inside the atom" anymore. They get "kicked around" in the plasma, being drawn to the positive charged nuclei of the atoms. However, (classic physics) as charges are accellerated light is emitted (just like the 30kV electrons that hit a metal surface and such emit x-rays). As there is a plasma inside the bubble no characteristic spectral lines are seen (as an LED which emits just one spectral line (620nm or such)).


Sunny Cohen (
EST: Friday, Jan 12, 19101 (13:12)
From: Belleville Ontario Canada

I am a grade eight student and I am looking for a simple lab for sonoluminesence if you have anything please e-mail me

Milia Margulis (
EST: Friday, Jan 19, 19101 (12:10)
From: Russia

Dear collegues,
I would like to suggest for you our large review devoted to the problem of sonoluminescence (SL) in usual (multibubble) fields and in single bubble camera.

You can read it in Russ. Physics-Uspekhi v.3 p.259-282 (2000) or in

In this paper we have considered the basic experimental data of multibubble SL and the main theories of this phenomenon. It was shown that only two theories of multibubble SL are competitive - the heat theory of Noltingk-Neppiras and the theory of local electrification of cavitation bubbles. Now many researchers follow the heat theory. Nevertheless, at least 16 groups (!) of experimental data contradict to the heat theory but they don't conflict to the electrical one. So only one theory can explain the main multibubble SL phenomena - the theory of local electrification. Accordingly to this theory, the multibubble SL arises because of electric discharge in the gas phase into cavitation bubble when electrical strength near the bubble surface occurs more than critical one.
In this paper we have proposed also a new theory of single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL). We have shown the great difference between the SBSL nature (the heat mechanism, temperature ~ 100kK) and the nature of usual SL (the electrical mechanism, temperature of gas ~ 1 kK) and the main reasons of the difference.

We expect that in our paper you will find some answers on your questions about SL.

With best wishes,
Milia Margulis

alisha (
EST: Saturday, Jan 20, 19101 (13:45)

i need some experaments

Bill G. (
EST: Thursday, Feb 1, 19101 (19:33)
From: Ohio

Checking out latest info on SL web page

Dwight Dobson (private)
EST: Sunday, Feb 4, 19101 (17:53)
From: Skookum Creek, Washington

They say it must be causal.Then in the event that causality has proof it's claim is irrelevent.
All agree that organic matter is carbon base existing in an atmosphere.Any functions would necessarily be a process of what it is. Carbohydrate digestion produces energy that is observable and non-observable.
Very small wavelengths with a large vector may propagate from a constrained small vector, large wavelength.
If the small vector, large wavelenght is constrained and is suddenly introduced to slightly greater than or equal resistance the energy including the inertia and space is stored or dissapates. Feedback loop here.The space portion of the small vector , large wavelength, absorbs the energy on a propagated small wavelength, large vector?Is the feedback progressive \ regressive position [elastic symbol]. The right angle portion of the invert wave trough that gets compressed to contour the curved wave local immediate past original wave and the propagated waves.The curved wave becomes more eliptical and stores energy also . Is the energy experienced over the entire surface of the new wave or primarily at the right angle intersections.
The constraint devisable by the cycles of volume mid-back from the parameter of the total volume that surrounds it. These intigrate in terms of one-way substrate or neccesarily absorb energy waves into a parallel system spherical charged test particle whose radius is equal to the debye length.
On a grand scale enough curvature of space to momentarily plug a black hole swing 90 degrees exit a white dwarf.

Dwight Dobson (private)
EST: Sunday, Feb 4, 19101 (17:54)
From: Skookum Creek, Washington

They say it must be causal.Then in the event that causality has proof it's claim is irrelevent.
All agree that organic matter is carbon base existing in an atmosphere.Any functions would necessarily be a process of what it is. Carbohydrate digestion produces energy that is observable and non-observable.
Very small wavelengths with a large vector may propagate from a constrained small vector, large wavelength.
If the small vector, large wavelenght is constrained and is suddenly introduced to slightly greater than or equal resistance the energy including the inertia and space is stored or dissapates. Feedback loop here.The space portion of the small vector , large wavelength, absorbs the energy on a propagated small wavelength, large vector?Is the feedback progressive \ regressive position [elastic symbol]. The right angle portion of the invert wave trough that gets compressed to contour the curved wave local immediate past original wave and the propagated waves.The curved wave becomes more eliptical and stores energy also . Is the energy experienced over the entire surface of the new wave or primarily at the right angle intersections.
The constraint devisable by the cycles of volume mid-back from the parameter of the total volume that surrounds it. These intigrate in terms of one-way substrate or neccesarily absorb energy waves into a parallel system spherical charged test particle whose radius is equal to the debye length.
On a grand scale enough curvature of space to momentarily plug a black hole swing 90 degrees exit a white dwarf.

EST: Sunday, Feb 4, 19101 (22:06)
From: Phila. PA now in Outville, OH

There are no recent listings? Can this be used to find the ultimate particle?
At temps from 10,000 to 1 Million °C this is highly likely as a vehicle to do so. Who the heck needs a cyclotron.....
Thanks! Stephen Caruso

Andrew (
EST: Sunday, Feb 11, 19101 (10:57)
From: United Kingdom

I an doind A-level physics and I have been set a challenge, I have recently done magnetisim and magnetic fields. The equation that we use to calculate magnetis field force is,F=BIl (Force is field strength x current x length of wire in field. The question is where is the B from in this equation. i.e is it from Greek letters etc. ? any suggestions would be appreciated

Javier Moreno Almeida (
EST: Wednesday, Feb 14, 19101 (06:58)
From: Spain

Hi, I've been looking at information of SL but I haven't found hardly anything on one subject, the applications of this effect. I've read they are trying to produce nuclear fusion, does anyone know exactly how they plan to do this, and does anyone know any other applications?

STEVE REED (mailto:www.billreed@btinternet)
EST: Saturday, Feb 24, 19101 (12:35)


I am a studant desperately needing some help I have an assignment
that requires the knowlage of how a vacume flask works. This is proving quite difficult as I can't find any info. Just wondering does anybody out there have any info that can help me?

Stephen J. Bellino II (
EST: Wednesday, Feb 28, 19101 (13:19)
From: hattiesburg,Ms

Why is salt placed in fire hydrants in cold weather to aid in keeping the water from freezing?
Why is a reservoir of water supplyplaced at the highest location?
What are the 3-ways of transferring heat to another?
Why is copper used for cooling coils?
Why are objects visible?
How do the feathers on a bird's wing help them fly?

shelly (
EST: Wednesday, Feb 28, 19101 (16:48)
From: virginia

i want to know what would happen when you put fire up to a ballon filled with hydroden in it.

mike (
EST: Thursday, March 8, 19101 (11:40)
From: phx az

Anyone heard of luke-warm fusion?
Why not put some boranes in the solution,
and activate them with neutrons?

Is that capable of increasing the energy density of the bubble.

If surface tension drives the collapse, why not sonolum in

mike (
EST: Thursday, March 8, 19101 (11:44)
From: phx az

Hey, oddball idea:

Can you make superfluid helium sonoluminesce?
How do the viscosity characteristics of the medium
affect the bubble dynamics in production of the


Graeme (
EST: Sunday, March 11, 19101 (00:33)
From: Auckland, New Zealand

Hi, i am interested in building a sonoluminecence device and would appreciate any info you could email me.

Hesam (
EST: Tuesday, March 13, 19101 (14:18)
From: Missouri

Hello, I am a ninth grade studen at West Junior High School. I plan on doing on doing an experiment on sonoluminescence. I can get help from professors at the University of Missouri, howver, I need variables to measure. If anybody knows any two variables to measure about Sonoluminescenece. I need an independant and dependant. Please email me at

simone balboni (
EST: Saturday, March 17, 19101 (09:33)
From: ferrara italy

there is the possibility of take the energy?°c\atm

EST: Friday, March 23, 19101 (23:46)


John Tatum (
EST: Tuesday, March 27, 19101 (16:05)
From: BFE


John Tatum (
EST: Tuesday, March 27, 19101 (16:09)
From: BFE

Helllo Everybody. First time here. What would be the easiest way to create SL, especially for a PWB playin around in his home workshop.

John Tatum

Howard .N.McMinn (
EST: Wednesday, March 28, 19101 (07:45)
From: Scotland

Yes Georges Gabereau, theres a SciAm article on sonoluminescence and if that aint all, there is , in the same edition, an entire several-page article on sonoluminescence. Shawn Carlson. I cant recall the exact date of edition- i am in college library right now, but there a rather unpleasant close-up of a drawing of some blokes muscle-clad chest on the cover. About anabolic steroids uses, if that will help any in tracking down the edition. I know now that this comes a LITTLE late- i just saw the 1998 date on your message. Aah crap. Nowt minding.
Sorry about the email address of mine. I have to change that someday, but its so much hassle.

Georges Gabereau (
EST: Friday, Sept 11, 1998 (20:21)
From: Knowlton, Quebec, Canad a.


I'm looking into sonoluminescence for my high school physics/chem
project. I read all the pages I could find and I still don't really
understand how to set it up. Do any of you have the SciAm article
on making a SL kit? if not could someone give me a very detailed
step-by-step instructions on how to make a set-up. Any help would
be greatly appreciated.


Georges Gabereau

Lynn Lee (
EST: Saturday, March 31, 19101 (00:47)
From: Manhattan, KS, USA


I'm a high school senior and I've taken up trying to recreate SL for an independent science research project. So far, I've been going off of diagrams given on the internet, namely some from the links on "SL Net." Anyways, almost EVERYTHING I've seen says I need a "1R" resistor. Exactly what kind of unit is that? Am I misreading it? I know I'm not just reading the schematics or circuit diagram, it's listed in the materials list as a 1R resistor.

Sadi Khan (
EST: Monday, April 2, 19101 (20:13)
From: Florida, US

I have a theory on SBSL (not to be bashful or anything)

This theory is dircetly dependent on Stephen Hawkings work on black holes. When the bubble collapses at speeds of Mach 4, the water surrounding the bubble take some time to follow through, this creates a situation where the matter inside the bubble(air or whateever gas), is compressed to a very concenrated point. There is a vacuum surrounding the point(or volume). As most of you know, in this vacuum are virtual particles (more commonly known as Quantum Fluctuations), The point has a event horizon now (being the very boundaries of its existence), and anything in there will be sucked into it. Just like in a black hole. Radiation has been detected from black holes, even though they supposedly suck everything in their event horizon into their singularity. Now in SBSl, this happens tremendously fast, One of the two virtual particles (they come in pairs), is traped inside the event horizon, and is EMITTED back since the trmendous forces inside the contracted point cause it act like a black hole. According to E = mc2, this emission of te virtual particle(they become a real particles instead), takes energy, which correlates to a decreased mass. At a point the mass will reach zero, resulting in a tremendous burst of energy. In real back holes, they are massive, therefore, a long time passes before they will ever collapse, but in SBSL, the point is tiny.

Hope you like it,
Sadi Khan
p.s. if I wasn't clear enough,please e-maile me, I will describe it to you in greater detail. Thanks (I didn;t want to take up to much space).

Peter (
EST: Wednesday, April 4, 19101 (17:03)
From: Port reading NJ

I was wondering if you change the bubble's composition or the medium that it is
in will it change any data on the resonate state?

Iglota (
EST: Friday, April 6, 19101 (21:40)
From: Brazil

I want now about time trip.

Barbara Eaglesham (
EST: Saturday, April 7, 19101 (23:04)
From: Ithaca

I'm writing an article for a children's science magazine and would like to know if anyone can tell me if there are any practical applications for sonoluminescence, or is the work merely an interesting phenomenon at present? I've read that they cause damage to propellers of ships...are there any other examples of their effects, outside the laboratory? Does anyone know if sonoluminescence occurs during the use of ultrasound devices such as are used in visualizing fetuses in utero, or suspicious breast lesions, and if so, has there ever been any discussion as to whether they might have a detrimental effect on tissue local to the ultrasound?

Thanks, Barbara E.

Ed (
EST: Sunday, April 8, 19101 (14:55)
From: Melrose Park, PA

hi! I am doing a science fair project on sonoluminescence for a science fair going on in 7th grade. Can someone mail me about how to make a SL kit? I'd really appreciate your help.

twister (
EST: Wednesday, April 18, 19101 (21:55)
From: virginia beach va


Candice Moore (
EST: Monday, May 14, 19101 (23:07)
From: Santa Monica, CA

I really need to know what the phisical and Chemical Properties! i am 11 and I'm not a rocket scientist you know.

Lars (
EST: Thursday, May 31, 19101 (13:48)
From: Holland

Hi everyboy!!

I've got a question. At school we had to do an experiment. We'd like to do SL. But our qeustion is, is it very hard to do it? Can we make it? Or is it impossible?? Has anybody tips, I'd like to hear them!!



kye (
EST: Monday, June 11, 19101 (04:11)
From: sedona

i came to sedona becouse i feel i have lived i this earth time before.
i feel earth is looping on it.s self and our though form is a big couse of it

nate (
EST: Wednesday, June 13, 19101 (09:17)
From: penn state

i am inquiring on how much money the largest magnet can be bought for
1 to 10 teslea

J C (
EST: Thursday, June 14, 19101 (19:35)
From: New York

Hi everybody
I was wondering if anybody knew about a chemical or a jelly or some sort of substance that will expand or contract because of being in contact with electricty. I would appreciate this very much. Thank you.

steve acworth (
EST: Monday, July 16, 19101 (11:18)
From: wales

The Sonoluminescence Projector ( 'Clockwork Laser') is a new type of electromagnetic turbine utilising the controlled probability of sonoluminescence within a water-filled music string. The natural mutual antipathy of water to black carbon provides a unique opportunity to create many thousands of parallel microscopic water-strings, suspended within the core of a music string. The symmetrical forcing of harmonic modulations within these water-strings renders a probability set of positions for chained sonoluminescence bubble collapse events. ...a wire-wound, carbon-cored, water-filled music string serves as the axle for a spoked rotor... the assembled mechanism is immersed in boiling water; upon cooling, condensing water vapour draws liquid water into the capillaries between the carbon fibres... mutual antipathy of carbon and water causes 'water-strings' to spontaneously form... it is within these 'water-strings' that the sonoluminescence action takes place.

Anticipate a CDROM in snail mail.

If you don't receive your disk in the next few days, call

Steve Acworth. July 2001

Google's Sonoluminescence Search!